During Jorge Mario Bergoglio’s papacy, the theology of conscience has taken on a significant role. A developed theology of conscience emerged during the Second Vatican Council, most notably with Gaudium et spes, and later developed as essential in moral theology. Francis is the first pope to fully embody Vatican II teachings, in particular in his incorporation of the conscience into theology and practice. During the first months of his papacy, he made it clear that conscience is crucial to his theology and, in a letter exchange with a prominent Italian journalist, he underscored obedience to one’s conscience as the key to receiving forgiveness of sins. This development has tremendous theological and missiological implications for the Roman Catholic Church.