This article explores the impact of the Reformation and the post-Reformation era on the Christian understanding of music, as well as the historical development of music. The article begins with Martin Luther’s unique contribution to the theology of music. The second section deals with John Calvin’s complementary theology of music. The third section shows that some Lutheran post-Reformation theologians have developed their thoughts not only from the central tenets of Luther’s theology of music but also from those of Calvin. The final section shows the relevance of reformational and post-reformational theologies of music to contemporary issues in worship. In conclusion, an eclectic and principled ecumenical understanding of those various theologies of music can help to challenge in a sensitive way the current shortage of high-quality music our contemporary context.